• First known signs of civilisation in Cyprus.
• Mycenaean Greek civilisation established in Cyprus.
• Archaean Greek civilisation. Archaean Greeks peacefully establish city kingdoms on the Mycenaean model. Greek art, literature and philosophy thrive.
• Persian occupation of Cyprus.
• Cypriot kingdoms join the Ionian revolt against Persian rule.
• Macedonian Greek civilisation dominates Cyprus.
• Alexander the Great, with support of Cypriot kings, defeats Persians.
• Macedonian control over Cyprus.
• Hellenistic Period.
• Cyprus becomes a Hellenistic cultural province.
• Death of Alexander the Great.
• Cyprus embroiled in struggles to succeed Alexander the Great.
• Cyprus annexed by Ptolemy.
• Becomes part of the Hellenistic state of Egypt.
• Cyprus becomes a Roman province.
• The island becomes part of the Roman Empire.
• Apostles Paul and Barnabas begin conversion of population of Cypriots to Christianity.
• On the division of the Roman Empire, Cyprus becomes part of the Greek Byzantine Empire.
• Constantinople is inaugurated as capital of the Orthodox Christian Byzantine Empire.
• Arabs raid the island.
• The island is neutral following treaty between Emperor Justinian II and Caliph al-Malik.
• Cyprus is regained for Byzantium by Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas.
• St Hilarion, Kantara and Buffavento castles built on Kyrenia range as a defence against Arab raids.
• Isaac Ducas Comnenos takes over government of the island.
• King Richard the Lionheart takes possession of Cyprus.
• Cyprus is sold by Richard the Lionheart to the Knights Templars.
• The Templars resell the island to King Richard who induces Guy de Lusignan to acquire it.
• A Frankish dynasty is established.
• Despite Latin persecution, the Greek Orthodox church still flourishes.
• Genoese occupy Famagusta.
• Egyptians raid the island.
• The capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans signals the end of the Byzantine Empire.
• Cyprus is ceded to Venice by Venetian Queen Cornaro.
• Ottoman troops invade Cyprus.
• The island is plundered and thousands are put to the sword.
• Cyprus is annexed to Ottoman Empire.
• Turks transplanted to Cyprus to keep the indigenous Greek population under control.
• Latin church is expelled and the Orthodox Church upholds the existence of a Greek national identity.
• The archbishop is recognised as representative of the Christian population.
• Greece’s war of independence against Ottoman rule results in massacres and looting against the Greeks of Cyprus.
• Archbishop Kyprianos and three bishops are executed.
• Rebellions for for union (enosis) with Greece are brutally suppressed.
• Britain signs an alliance with Turkey and assumes administration of Cyprus, which still remains officially part of the Ottoman Empire.
• First limited elections held in Cyprus to the legislative Council.
• Turkey sides with Germany during the Great War.
• Britain annexes Cyprus.
• Britain offers Cyprus to Greece on condition Greece enters war. Greece refuses offer.
• Britain annexes Cyprus after Turkey's defeat in Great War.
• Turkey renounces all claim to Cyprus in favour of Britain by the Treaty of Lausanne.
• Cyprus declared a crown colony. Greek Cypriot members of the legislative Council resign.
• Pro-enosis riots in Nicosia
• Government House is burnt down and Constitution suspended.
• Colonial Government of Cyprus convenes Consultative Assembly for study of proposals for limited self rule.
• Proposals rejected by Greek Cypriots who demand complete self rule.
• Archbishop Makarios II holds plebiscite of Greek Cypriots which shows 96% in favour of enosis. Makarios III elected Archbishop.
• Further British proposals for a legislative Council rejected.
• Grivas arrives secretly to organise the liberation struggle.
• EOKA campaign begins 1 April.
• Tripartite conference in London begins 29 August.
• Anti-Greek riots in Turkey, 6-7 September.
• Harding proposals for self rule.
• State of emergency declared in Cyprus.
• Makarios exiled to the Seychelles, March.
• Radcliffe proposals rejected.
• Turkish Cypriot leadership declares aim of partition.
• Makarios released from the Seychelles, but banned from Cyprus.
• MacMillan plan, a system of condominium of Cyprus by Britain, Greece and Turkey.
• London-Zurich agreements signed, February.
• Archbishop Makarios returns to Cyprus, March.
• Archbishop Makarios elected President, December.
• Dr Fazil Kutcuk elected Vice-President, December.
• Cyprus gains independence, becoming an independent republic on 16 August. Britain, Greece and Turkey become guarantors of the constitution and territorial integrity of the Republic under the 1960 'Treaty of Alliance and Guarantee'.
• General elections to House of Representatives, July.
• Cyprus becomes 99th member of the United Nations and joins the Commonwealth.
• Britain retains sovereignty of 99 square miles of the island for military bases.
• Cyprus becomes a member of the Council of Europe.
• Archbishop Makarios submits proposals for amending the Constitution, November.
• Outbreak of intercommunal fighting.
• 'Green line' dividing the communities in Nicosia established, December.
• Turkish officials withdraw from administration.
• Turkey threatens invasion.
• President Johnson warns Turkish Prime Minister Inonu against invading Cyprus.
• Grivas returns to Cyprus and assumes command of the National Guard, June.
• Fighting in Tylliria area, August.
• Galo Plaza, UN Mediator, publishes report and proposals; rejected by Turkey and Turkish Cypriots, March.
• Joint communiqué signed by the Governments of Greece and Cyprus that any solution excluding enosis would be unacceptable, February.
• Military coup in Greece, 21 April.
• Fighting between National Guard under Grivas and Turkish Cypriots in the Kophinou area leads to Turkish ultimatum; accepted by the Greek Junta, which withdraws troops and Grivas from Cyprus, November.
• Turkish Cypriots announce formation of ‘Provisional Cyprus Turkish Administration’, December
• Attempt on Makarios’ life.
• Grivas returns secretly to Cyprus.
• Start of renewed campaign for enosis by EOKA-B.
• Makarios demands withdrawal of Greek officers.
• Coup d’état against President Makarios, 15 July.
• Turkish Prime Minister Ecevit flies to London, 17 July.
• Illegal Turkish invasion of Cyprus begins, 20 July. Turkish military commits atrocities on Cypriot civilians including mass murder, torture, rape, abductions and ethnic cleansing of over 200,000 Greek Cypriots.
• Turkey is condemned for its actions by the international community including the European Commission of Human Rights and United Nations.
• Glafkos Clerides acting President of Cyprus, 24 July.
• Peace talks between Britain, Greece and Turkey begin in Geneva, 25 July.
• British, Greek and Turkish Foreign Ministers sign the Geneva declaration precluding extension of area under military control and setting up of buffer zones, 30 July.
• Deadlock in negotiations; Turkey launches second invasion of Cyprus, 14 August.
• Turkey occupies 37 percent of the territory of the Republic of Cyprus
• Declaration of 'Autonomous Turkish Cypriot Administration', 22 August.
• President Makarios in UN Assembly rejects geographical federation, 1 October.
• Greek and Turkish Cypriots agree to resume negotiations on the basis of federal government, January.
• Turkey withdraws from the talks, February.
• 'Turkish federated state of Cyprus' declared in occupied Cyprus, 10 February.
• Partial arms embargo imposed on Turkey by US Congress (in defiance of Henry Kissinger) for using weapons supplied by the US in invasion of Cyprus.
• Death of Archbishop Makarios
• Succeeded by Spyros Kyprianou as president.
• End of US arms embargo on Turkey.
• UN-sponsored peace talks.
• Unilateral declaration of so-called ‘Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus’ in occupied territories. Pseudo state is unrecognised by the international community.
• No agreement at talks between President Kyprianou and Turkish occupation representative Denktas.
• George Vassiliou becomes president of Cyprus.
• President Vassiliou and Denktash talks fail.
• Greek Cypriot property owner Titina Loizidou applies to European Commission of Human Rights in Strasbourg, filing an individual application against Turkey for violation of her property rights in the occupied areas.
• Cyprus applies to join European Community.
• UN Secretary-General Boutros Ghali 'Set of Ideas' submitted which proposes weak central government.
• Glafkos Clerides elected president of Cyprus.
• Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) submitted by UN Secretary-General. CBMs include the opening of Nicosia airport and return of Famagusta to UN for resettlement by Greek Cypriots. Cyprus Government accepts proposal, which is rejected by Denktash.
• CBMs amended by UN Secretary-General to meet Denktash’s objections. Proposal is again accepted by Cyprus Government and rejected by Denktash.
• UN Secretary-General report states "the absence of agreement [is] due essentially to a lack of political will on the Turkish Cypriot side".
• European Court of Justice rules that all direct trade between occupied Cyprus and European Union is illegal.
• European Court of Human Rights delivers first judgment in the Loizidou v Turkey case on 23 March, rejecting Turkey's objections.
• Three unarmed Greek Cypriots are murdered by Turkish regime. Tassos Issaac and Solomos Solomou were killed at anti-occupation demonstrations and Petros Kakoulli was killed after wandering into occupied zone.
• European Court of Human Rights delivers second judgment on 18 December, finding Turkey guilty of violating property rights of Titina Loizidou and reaffirms illegality of Turkey's occupation regime.
• S-300 ground to air missiles are ordered from Russia by Cyprus Government.
• UN sponsored talks between President Clerides and Denktash fail.
• S-300 missiles are deployed in Crete after threats by Turkey to attack them on arrival.
• President Clerides re-elected to a second term.
• European Union lists Cyprus as a potential member.
• Cyprus Government takes part in UN-sponsored 'proximity talks'.
• Turkey threatens to annex occupied areas.
Turkey threatens to annex the occupied north of the island if the Republic of Cyprus joins the European Union prior to a settlement.
• President Clerides and Denktash commence UN sponsored negotiations.
• United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan presents the Annan plan for Cyprus, envisaging a confederation of two constituent parts.
• European Union summit in Copenhagen invites Cyprus to join the EU in 2004.
• Tassos Papadopoulos defeats Clerides in presidential elections in February.
• No agreement reached on UN sponsored plan which is rejected by Denktash in March.
• Turkish Cypriot regime authorities some easing of restrictions in April on crossing of occupation line. Greek and Turkish Cypriots cross for first time in 30 years.
• Elections in occupied areas. Mehmet Ali Talat of Republican Turkish Party invited to form coalition of parties in December.
• Talat forms coalition with Democratic Party which is headed by Serdar Denktash, the son of Turkish Cypriot leader Rauf Denktash, in January.
• Twin referenda, 24 April, in government controlled area and in occupied area on the Annan plan. Plan is overwhelmingly rejected by the Greek Cypriots.
• Cyprus joins the European Union with ten other states on 1 May.
• Turkey continues its illegal occupation of 37 percent of the island in violation of over 120 United Nations and Security Council resolutions.
• Parliament ratifies proposed EU constitution in June.
• Turkey delivers additional American-made military tanks and armoured vehicles directly to Ammochostos to supplement existing occupation force. Turkish occupation force three times stronger than the Cypriot National Guard.
• UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon appoints Australian former Foreign Minister Alexander Downer as his new special envoy for Cyprus
• UN-sponsored negotiations begin in April between Cyprus President Christofias and Turkish Cypriot leader Mehmet Ali Talat.
• Negotiations included 13 working groups and technical committees.
• Elections in occupied areas in April.
• Hard-liner Dervis Eroglu elected as leader of Turkish Cypriots. He has ruled out any concessions to Greek Cypriots or the return of any occupied land as part of a peace settlement.